Inka Maya Wer waren sie?
in Mexiko, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras und El Salvador lebte. Das Volk der Maya war nicht wie die Azteken und Inka in einem Imperium. Die Maya, Inka und Azteken entwickelten eine differenzierte Hochkultur, deren Aufstieg und Niedergang uns bis heute fasziniert. Die Ruinen einiger. erlebte die Kultur der Maya, Inka und Azteken ihren Höhepunkt und wo lebten die Völker? Testet euer Wissen zu diesem spannenden Thema! Azteken, Maya und Inka – Goldene Zeiten und ihr schlimmes Ende. Die Natur ist etwas, das der Mensch nicht geschaffen hat. Das Gegenteil von ihr ist die Kultur. Maya, Inka und Azteken – auf den Spuren untergegangener Hochkulturen. machu-picchu. Ein Besuch der Ruinenstadt Machu Picchu darf auf.
Maya, Azteken, Inka – was ist das eigentlich? Das W:O:A wird ganz im Zeichen historischer Hochkulturen aus Amerika stehen. Dabei geht es immer. Welche Errungenschaften prägten die Kultur und Gesellschaft der Maya, Inka und Azteken? Azteken, Maya und Inka – Goldene Zeiten und ihr schlimmes Ende. Die Natur ist etwas, das der Mensch nicht geschaffen hat. Das Gegenteil von ihr ist die Kultur.
Forgot Password? Maya vs Aztec vs Inca. Popular Course in this category. Course Price View Course. Login details for this Free course will be emailed to you.
Free Design Course. Maya comprised up of city-states and was not united politically. There was an independent ruler for each city-state. Aztec was ruled by an Emperor whose main purpose was to lead in the wars.
The local rulers and conquered people had to pay tax to the Aztec. Inca was ruled by Sapa Inca, the emperor who had absolute power.
Aztecs were polytheistic. They build huge temples and pyramids in dedication to their god Huitzilopochtli. Inca was polytheistic. They worshiped their primary God Inti, who they called the sun God.
The Maya built huge arrays of structures, and have left a considerable architectural heritage. Monumental sculptures were mainly favorite. They build statues like that of colossal Coatlicue or very alive and famous sculpture of a seated Xochipilli.
Aztec art portrayed all varieties of a subject but especially famous were animals, plants and gods, specifically those related to fertility and agriculture.
The Inca buildings were in uniformity with huge imperial structures. Scattered around the city were islands which were used to grow crops.
The center of the Aztec civilization was in the Valley of Mexico, a huge high-elevation basin in the Sierra Madre Mountains.
This valley had a mild climate that was good for agriculture. The surrounding lowlands offered a hotter, wetter tropical climate and an abundance of natural resources.
The Aztec called their ruler the Tlatoani. The Empire reached its height under the rule of Tlatoani Montezuma I. Around the priests of the Aztecs began to see omens of doom.
They felt that something bad was going to happen. They were right. In Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes arrived in Mexico. By the Spanish had conquered the Aztecs.
They tore down much of the city of Tenochtitlan and built their own city on the site called Mexico City. In the mountains of present day Peru, around AD, the Incas rose and established their capital Cusco.
In however, the Inca expanded under the ruler Pachakuti whose son, Tupac Inca, continued the expansion mainly north and south conquering many different people, including the powerful Chimu.
By , the Incas ruled a mile km territory along the Andes Mountains until the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in At its height the Inca Empire green was far larger than the Aztec blue or Mayan red territories.
Like the Aztecs, the Inca Empire had a strict hierarchy with the ruler and nobles at the top. Much like our modern societies, the Inca Empire was divided up into districts with administrators and governors at the head of them.
Local communities had responsibilities for carrying out projects that would benefit the Empire. The road system which made for easier travel and communication across the Empire, had to be built and maintained by the locals.
Power, though, was in the hands of Cusco. The emperor of the Inca was known as the Sapa Inca. The first Sapa Inca was Manco Capac. He founded the Kingdom of Cuzco around AD.
The city of Cuzco would remain the capital of the empire as it expanded in the coming years. The Inca expanded into a great empire under the reign of Pachacuti.
Pachacuti created the Inca Empire which the Inca called the Tawantinsuyu. At its height, the Inca Empire had an estimated population of over 10 million people.
The Inca Empire was centered in Peru and ruled over much of the west coast of South America from the s to the time of the Spanish arrival in The Inca were conquered by the Spanish and conquistador Francisco Pizarro in The empire was already severely weakened by civil war and diseases such as smallpox when Pizarro arrived.
Clive Binns Jr. Create your own. Aztec, Inca, Mayan Timeline. History The Mayan civilization existed for more than years! Did you know? Spanish Conquest I In the 16th century, the lives of the people in the Americas changed forever.
History As mentioned earlier, the Mayan civilization was composed of city-states competing for power. Conquistador Hernan Cortes.Die klassische Maya-Zivilisation umfasste eine Reihe von Stadtstaaten, die jeweils einen eigenen Herrscher und ihm untergebene Verwalter hatten. Als noch sehr traditionell lebende Gruppe sind die Lacandon -Maya in Chiapas bekannt. Die politischen Strukturen waren je nach Region, Zeitraum, Einzelvolk und auch nach Stadt unterschiedlich. Es wurde entschieden, dass das Land von Mexiko aus verwaltet werden sollte. Als Alexanderplatz Fernsehturm Ruinen vom amerikanischen Archäologen Hiram Bingham gefunden wurden, war es klar, dass die Inka ein unfassbares Verständnis für Bauwerke und Konstruktionen hatten. Die Meinungen über die Bedeutung der Quipus gehen weiterhin auseinander. Bitte geben Inka Maya einen Namen an und Ihren Zuschriften stets eine aussagekräftige Überschrift, damit bei Onlinediskussionen andere Teilnehmer sich leichter Lotto Mittwoch ErgebniГџe Ihre Beiträge beziehen können. Die wohl bekanntesten Zeugnisse dieser frühen Hochkultur sind allerdings die riesigen Basaltköpfe, die vermutlich hochrangige Persönlichkeiten der Olmeken darstellen. Das Volk was sich selbst Mexica nannte beherrschte weite Teile des heutigen Mexikos. Aufgrund der besonderen Lage auf etwa Höhenmetern wurde es wahrscheinlich nicht von den erobernden Spaniern entdeckt und somit gehört Machu Picchu Inka Maya Beste Spielothek in Porrau finden einer der am besten erhaltenen altertümlichen Ruinen der Welt. Sie erfanden Systeme, in denen der Beste Spielothek in Fleschenbach finden Abgaben zu leisten oder seine Arbeitskraft für den Beste Spielothek in Kentheim finden einzusetzen hatte. Jahrhundert in ihrer eigenständigen Kultur und Sprache infolge staatlich gewalttätiger Unterdrückung ausgerottet wurden. Auch die Azteken waren fähige Architekten. Autor: Dietmar Lang. Im Gegensatz zu den Stämmen der nordamerikanischen Indianer gründeten sie Staaten. Die Maya sind ein indigenes Volk bzw. eine Gruppe indigener Völker in Mittelamerika, die Bemerkenswert ist, dass den Maya, ebenso wie den übrigen Völkern Amerikas (mit Ausnahme der Inkas, die in geringem Umfang Lamas nutzten). Welche Errungenschaften prägten die Kultur und Gesellschaft der Maya, Inka und Azteken? Maya, Azteken, Inka – was ist das eigentlich? Das W:O:A wird ganz im Zeichen historischer Hochkulturen aus Amerika stehen. Dabei geht es immer.
Finally, the Spanish conquistadors led by Hernan Cortes conquered Tenochtitlan and overpower the Aztec in Start Your Free Design Course.
It was the largest empire that developed and extended approximately miles from north to south and included around 16 million people. The Incan united its empire by building a huge road network through mountains and across rivers.
The Inca was famous for stonework and build stone temples without using mortars. Maya vs Aztec vs Inca are like each other in many of the ways, like they all build pyramids, Maya, Aztec, and Inca were all polytheistic, practiced human sacrifice but still, they are three different cultures that rose and fell at different times for different reasons.
Finally, Maya was the first, who created a writing system as well as used calendars. The Aztec followed about years after the Maya began to shrink.
The Inca were from a completely different area, they could not invent their own writing system rather they kept bundles of knotted cords called quipus as their records and lasted less than years.
Before being abolished, they managed to become the most advanced in their short life. This has been a guide to the top difference between Maya vs Aztec vs Inca.
Here we also discuss the key differences with infographics and comparison table. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more —.
The inhabitants of the periphery abandoned the site soon after. This is an example of intensive warfare carried out by an enemy in order to completely eliminate a Maya state, rather than subjugate it.
Research at Aguateca indicated that Classic period warriors were primarily members of the elite. From as early as the Preclassic period, the ruler of a Maya polity was expected to be a distinguished war leader, and was depicted with trophy heads hanging from his belt.
In the Classic period, such trophy heads no longer appeared on the king's belt, but Classic period kings are frequently depicted standing over humiliated war captives.
Maya inscriptions from the Classic show that a defeated king could be captured, tortured, and sacrificed. The outcome of a successful military campaign could vary in its impact on the defeated polity.
In some cases, entire cities were sacked, and never resettled, as at Aguateca. The captured nobles and their families could be imprisoned, or sacrificed.
At the least severe end of the scale, the defeated polity would be obliged to pay tribute to the victor. During the Contact period, it is known that certain military positions were held by members of the aristocracy, and were passed on by patrilineal succession.
It is likely that the specialised knowledge inherent in the particular military role was taught to the successor, including strategy, ritual, and war dances.
Maya states did not maintain standing armies; warriors were mustered by local officials who reported back to appointed warleaders. There were also units of full-time mercenaries who followed permanent leaders.
There is some evidence from the Classic period that women provided supporting roles in war, but they did not act as military officers with the exception of those rare ruling queens.
The atlatl spear-thrower was introduced to the Maya region by Teotihuacan in the Early Classic. Maya warriors wore body armour in the form of quilted cotton that had been soaked in salt water to toughen it; the resulting armour compared favourably to the steel armour worn by the Spanish when they conquered the region.
Trade was a key component of Maya society, and in the development of the Maya civilization. The cities that grew to become the most important usually controlled access to vital trade goods, or portage routes.
The Maya engaged in long distance trade across the Maya region, and across greater Mesoamerica and beyond. As an illustration, an Early Classic Maya merchant quarter has been identified at the distant metropolis of Teotihuacan, in central Mexico.
Long distance trade of both luxury and utilitarian goods was probably controlled by the royal family. Prestige goods obtained by trade were used both for consumption by the city's ruler, and as luxury gifts to consolidate the loyalty of vassals and allies.
Trade routes not only supplied physical goods, they facilitated the movement of people and ideas throughout Mesoamerica. Little is known of Maya merchants, although they are depicted on Maya ceramics in elaborate noble dress.
From this, it is known that at least some traders were members of the elite. During the Contact period, it is known that Maya nobility took part in long distance trading expeditions.
When merchants travelled, they painted themselves black, like their patron gods, and went heavily armed. The Maya had no pack animals, so all trade goods were carried on the backs of porters when going overland; if the trade route followed a river or the coast, then goods were transported in canoes.
It was made from a large hollowed-out tree trunk and had a palm-covered canopy. The canoe was 2. Trade goods carried included cacao, obsidian, ceramics, textiles, food and drink for the crew, and copper bells and axes.
Marketplaces are difficult to identify archaeologically. Unusually high levels of zinc and phosphorus at both sites indicated similar food production and vegetable sales activity.
The calculated density of market stalls at Chunchucmil strongly suggests that a thriving market economy already existed in the Early Classic.
Maya art is essentially the art of the royal court. It is almost exclusively concerned with the Maya elite and their world. Maya art was crafted from both perishable and non-perishable materials, and served to link the Maya to their ancestors.
Although surviving Maya art represents only a small proportion of the art that the Maya created, it represents a wider variety of subjects than any other art tradition in the Americas.
The Maya exhibited a preference for the colour green or blue-green, and used the same word for the colours blue and green.
They sculpted artefacts that included fine tesserae and beads, to carved heads weighing 4. Maya stone sculpture emerged into the archaeological record as a fully developed tradition, suggesting that it may have evolved from a tradition of sculpting wood.
The few wooden artefacts that have survived include three-dimensional sculptures, and hieroglyphic panels. The rough form was laid out on a plain plaster base coating on the wall, and the three-dimensional form was built up using small stones.
Finally, this was coated with stucco and moulded into the finished form; human body forms were first modelled in stucco, with their costumes added afterwards.
The final stucco sculpture was then brightly painted. The Maya had a long tradition of mural painting; rich polychrome murals have been excavated at San Bartolo, dating to between and BC.
Among the best preserved murals are a full-size series of Late Classic paintings at Bonampak. Flint , chert , and obsidian all served utilitarian purposes in Maya culture, but many pieces were finely crafted into forms that were never intended to be used as tools.
Maya textiles are very poorly represented in the archaeological record, although by comparison with other pre-Columbian cultures, such as the Aztecs and the Andean region , it is likely that they were high-value items.
Such secondary representations show the elite of the Maya court adorned with sumptuous cloths, generally these would have been cotton, but jaguar pelts and deer hides are also shown.
Ceramics are the most commonly surviving type of Maya art. The Maya had no knowledge of the potter's wheel , and Maya vessels were built up by coiling rolled strips of clay into the desired form.
Maya pottery was not glazed, although it often had a fine finish produced by burnishing. Maya ceramics were painted with clay slips blended with minerals and coloured clays.
Ancient Maya firing techniques have yet to be replicated. They stand from 10 to 25 centimetres 3. It includes a set of features such as hieroglyphs painted in a pink or pale red colour and scenes with dancers wearing masks.
One of the most distinctive features is the realistic representation of subjects as they appeared in life.
Bone, both human and animal, was also sculpted; human bones may have been trophies, or relics of ancestors.
The Maya generally hammered sheet metal into objects such as beads, bells, and discs. In the last centuries before the Spanish Conquest, the Maya began to use the lost-wax method to cast small metal pieces.
One poorly studied area of Maya folk art is graffiti. At Tikal, where a great quantity of graffiti has been recorded, the subject matter includes drawings of temples, people, deities, animals, banners, litters, and thrones.
Graffiti was often inscribed haphazardly, with drawings overlapping each other, and display a mix of crude, untrained art, and examples by artists who were familiar with Classic-period artistic conventions.
The Maya produced a vast array of structures, and have left an extensive architectural legacy. Maya architecture also incorporates various art forms and hieroglyphic texts.
Masonry architecture built by the Maya evidences craft specialization in Maya society, centralised organization and the political means to mobilize a large workforce.
A Classic-period city like Tikal was spread over 20 square kilometres 7. The labour required to build such a city was immense, running into many millions of man-days.
Maya cities were not formally planned, and were subject to irregular expansion, with the haphazard addition of palaces, temples and other buildings.
Sculpted monuments were raised to record the deeds of the ruling dynasty. City centres also featured plazas, sacred ballcourts and buildings used for marketplaces and schools.
The areas adjacent to these sacred compounds included residential complexes housing wealthy lineages.
The largest and richest of these elite compounds sometimes possessed sculpture and art of craftsmanship equal to that of royal art.
The ceremonial centre of the Maya city was where the ruling elite lived, and where the administrative functions of the city were performed, together with religious ceremonies.
It was also where the inhabitants of the city gathered for public activities. Residential units were built on top of stone platforms to raise them above the level of the rain season floodwaters.
The Maya built their cities with Neolithic technology;  they built their structures from both perishable materials and from stone.
The exact type of stone used in masonry construction varied according to locally available resources, and this also affected the building style.
Across a broad swathe of the Maya area, limestone was immediately available. The Maya did not employ a functional wheel, so all loads were transported on litters, barges, or rolled on logs.
Heavy loads were lifted with rope, but probably without employing pulleys. Wood was used for beams, and for lintels , even in masonry structures.
Adobe was also applied; this consisted of mud strengthened with straw and was applied as a coating over the woven-stick walls of huts.
Like wood and thatch, adobe was used throughout Maya history, even after the development of masonry structures. In the southern Maya area, adobe was employed in monumental architecture when no suitable stone was locally available.
The great cities of the Maya civilization were composed of pyramid temples, palaces, ballcourts, sacbeob causeways , patios and plazas.
Some cities also possessed extensive hydraulic systems or defensive walls. The exteriors of most buildings were painted, either in one or multiple colours, or with imagery.
Many buildings were adorned with sculpture or painted stucco reliefs. These complexes were usually located in the site core, beside a principal plaza.
Maya palaces consisted of a platform supporting a multiroom range structure. The term acropolis , in a Maya context, refers to a complex of structures built upon platforms of varying height.
Palaces and acropoleis were essentially elite residential compounds. They generally extended horizontally as opposed to the towering Maya pyramids, and often had restricted access.
Some structures in Maya acropoleis supported roof combs. Rooms often had stone benches, used for sleeping, and holes indicate where curtains once hung.
Large palaces, such as at Palenque, could be fitted with a water supply, and sweat baths were often found within the complex, or nearby. During the Early Classic, rulers were sometimes buried underneath the acropolis complex.
There is abundant evidence that palaces were far more than simple elite residences, and that a range of courtly activities took place in them, including audiences, formal receptions, and important rituals.
Temples were raised on platforms, most often upon a pyramid. The earliest temples were probably thatched huts built upon low platforms. By the Late Preclassic period, their walls were of stone, and the development of the corbel arch allowed stone roofs to replace thatch.
By the Classic period, temple roofs were being topped with roof combs that extended the height of the temple and served as a foundation for monumental art.
The temple shrines contained between one and three rooms, and were dedicated to important deities. Such a deity might be one of the patron gods of the city, or a deified ancestor.
The Maya were keen observers of the sun, stars, and planets. The earliest examples date to the Preclassic period. A structure was built on the west side of a plaza; it was usually a radial pyramid with stairways facing the cardinal directions.
It faced east across the plaza to three small temples on the far side. From the west pyramid, the sun was seen to rise over these temples on the solstices and equinoxes.
As well as E-Groups, the Maya built other structures dedicated to observing the movements of celestial bodies. It has slit windows that marked the movements of Venus.
Triadic pyramids first appeared in the Preclassic. They consisted of a dominant structure flanked by two smaller inward-facing buildings, all mounted upon a single basal platform.
The ballcourt is a distinctive pan-Mesoamerican form of architecture. Although Maya cities shared many common features, there was considerable variation in architectural style.
In the Late Classic, these local differences developed into distinctive regional architectural styles. The style is characterised by tall pyramids supporting a summit shrine adorned with a roof comb, and accessed by a single doorway.
The exemplar of Puuc-style architecture is Uxmal. The motifs also included geometric patterns, lattices and spools, possibly influenced by styles from highland Oaxaca , outside the Maya area.
Roof combs were relatively uncommon at Puuc sites. Some doorways were surrounded by mosaic masks of monsters representing mountain or sky deities, identifying the doorways as entrances to the supernatural realm.
The Usumacinta style developed in the hilly terrain of the Usumacinta drainage. Cities took advantage of the hillsides to support their major architecture, as at Palenque and Yaxchilan.
Sites modified corbel vaulting to allow thinner walls and multiple access doors to temples. Palaces had multiple entrances that used post-and-lintel entrances rather than corbel vaulting.
Many sites erected stelae, but Palenque instead developed finely sculpted panelling to decorate its buildings. Before BC, the Maya spoke a single language, dubbed proto-Mayan by linguists.
The Maya writing system is one of the outstanding achievements of the pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Americas.
Early Maya script had appeared on the Pacific coast of Guatemala by the late 1st century AD, or early 2nd century. The Catholic Church and colonial officials, notably Bishop Diego de Landa , destroyed Maya texts wherever they found them, and with them the knowledge of Maya writing, but by chance three uncontested pre-Columbian books dated to the Postclassic period have been preserved.
Archaeology conducted at Maya sites often reveals other fragments, rectangular lumps of plaster and paint chips which were codices; these tantalizing remains are, however, too severely damaged for any inscriptions to have survived, most of the organic material having decayed.
Coe stated:. Most surviving pre-Columbian Maya writing dates to the Classic period and is contained in stone inscriptions from Maya sites, such as stelae, or on ceramics vessels.
The Maya writing system often called hieroglyphs from a superficial resemblance to Ancient Egyptian writing  is a logosyllabic writing system, combining a syllabary of phonetic signs representing syllables with logogram representing entire words.
The Maya script was in use up to the arrival of the Europeans, its use peaking during the Classic Period. The knowledge was subsequently lost, as a result of the impact of the conquest on Maya society.
The decipherment and recovery of the knowledge of Maya writing has been a long and laborious process.
The basic unit of Maya logosyllabic text is the glyph block, which transcribes a word or phrase. The block is composed of one or more individual glyphs attached to each other to form the glyph block, with individual glyph blocks generally being separated by a space.
Glyph blocks are usually arranged in a grid pattern. For ease of reference, epigraphers refer to glyph blocks from left to right alphabetically, and top to bottom numerically.
Thus, any glyph block in a piece of text can be identified. C4 would be third block counting from the left, and the fourth block counting downwards.
If a monument or artefact has more than one inscription, column labels are not repeated, rather they continue in the alphabetic series; if there are more than 26 columns, the labelling continues as A', B', etc.
Numeric row labels restart from 1 for each discrete unit of text. Although Mayan text may be laid out in varying manners, generally it is arranged into double columns of glyph blocks.
The reading order of text starts at the top left block A1 , continues to the second block in the double-column B1 , then drops down a row and starts again from the left half of the double column A2 , and thus continues in zig-zag fashion.
Once the bottom is reached, the inscription continues from the top left of the next double column. Where an inscription ends in a single unpaired column, this final column is usually read straight downwards.
Individual glyph blocks may be composed of a number of elements. These consist of the main sign, and any affixes. Main signs represent the major element of the block, and may be a noun , verb , adverb , adjective , or phonetic sign.
Some main signs are abstract, some are pictures of the object they represent, and others are "head variants", personifications of the word they represent.
Affixes are smaller rectangular elements, usually attached to a main sign, although a block may be composed entirely of affixes. Affixes may represent a wide variety of speech elements, including nouns, verbs, verbal suffixes, prepositions, pronouns, and more.
Small sections of a main sign could be used to represent the whole main sign, and Maya scribes were highly inventive in their usage and adaptation of glyph elements.
Although the archaeological record does not provide examples of brushes or pens, analysis of ink strokes on the Postclassic codices suggests that it was applied with a brush with a tip fashioned from pliable hair.
Commoners were illiterate; scribes were drawn from the elite. It is not known if all members of the aristocracy could read and write, although at least some women could, since there are representations of female scribes in Maya art.
Although not much is known about Maya scribes, some did sign their work, both on ceramics and on stone sculpture. Usually, only a single scribe signed a ceramic vessel, but multiple sculptors are known to have recorded their names on stone sculpture; eight sculptors signed one stela at Piedras Negras.
However, most works remained unsigned by their artists. In common with the other Mesoamerican civilizations, the Maya used a base 20 vigesimal system.
This later developed into a numeral that was used to perform calculation,  and was used in hieroglyphic texts for more than a thousand years, until the writing system was extinguished by the Spanish.
The basic number system consists of a dot to represent one, and a bar to represent five. In this way, the lowest symbol would represent units, the next symbol up would represent multiples of twenty, and the symbol above that would represent multiples of , and so on.
Using this system, the Maya were able to record huge numbers. The Maya calendrical system, in common with other Mesoamerican calendars, had its origins in the Preclassic period.
However, it was the Maya that developed the calendar to its maximum sophistication, recording lunar and solar cycles, eclipses and movements of planets with great accuracy.
In some cases, the Maya calculations were more accurate than equivalent calculations in the Old World ; for example, the Maya solar year was calculated to greater accuracy than the Julian year.
The Maya calendar was intrinsically tied to Maya ritual, and it was central to Maya religious practices. The next unit, instead of being multiplied by 20, as called for by the vigesimal system, was multiplied by 18 in order to provide a rough approximation of the solar year hence producing days.
This day year was called a tun. Each succeeding level of multiplication followed the vigesimal system. No astronomical basis for this count has been proved, and it may be that the day count is based on the human gestation period.
The day cycle repeated a series of day-names, with a number from 1 to 13 prefixed to indicated where in the cycle a particular day occurred.
The day haab was produced by a cycle of eighteen named day winal s, completed by the addition of a 5-day period called the wayeb.
Such a day name could only recur once every 52 years, and this period is referred to by Mayanists as the Calendar Round.
In most Mesoamerican cultures, the Calendar Round was the largest unit for measuring time. As with any non-repeating calendar, the Maya measured time from a fixed start point.
This was believed by the Maya to be the day of the creation of the world in its current form. Although the Calendar Round is still in use today,  the Maya started using an abbreviated Short Count during the Late Classic period.
The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel  contains the only colonial reference to classic long-count dates. This equates the Long Count date The famous astrologer John Dee used an Aztec obsidian mirror to see into the future.
We may look down our noses at his ideas, but one may be sure that in outlook he was far closer to a Maya priest astronomer than is an astronomer of our century.
The Maya made meticulous observations of celestial bodies, patiently recording astronomical data on the movements of the sun, moon, Venus, and the stars.
This information was used for divination , so Maya astronomy was essentially for astrological purposes. Maya astronomy did not serve to study the universe for scientific reasons, nor was it used to measure the seasons in order to calculate crop planting.
It was rather used by the priesthood to comprehend past cycles of time, and project them into the future to produce prophecy.
The priesthood refined observations and recorded eclipses of the sun and moon, and movements of Venus and the stars; these were measured against dated events in the past, on the assumption that similar events would occur in the future when the same astronomical conditions prevailed.
The Maya measured the day Venus cycle with an error of just two hours. Five cycles of Venus equated to eight day haab calendrical cycles, and this period was recorded in the codices.
The Maya also followed the movements of Jupiter , Mars and Mercury. Solar and lunar eclipses were considered to be especially dangerous events that could bring catastrophe upon the world.
Eclipses were interpreted as the sun or moon being bitten, and lunar tables were recorded in order that the Maya might be able to predict them, and perform the appropriate ceremonies to ward off disaster.
In common with the rest of Mesoamerica, the Maya believed in a supernatural realm inhabited by an array of powerful deities who needed to be placated with ceremonial offerings and ritual practices.
Visions for the chilan were likely facilitated by consumption of water lilies , which are hallucinogenic in high doses.
The Maya viewed the cosmos as highly structured. There were thirteen levels in the heavens and nine in the underworld, with the mortal world in between.
Each level had four cardinal directions associated with a different colour; north was white, east was red, south was yellow, and west was black. Major deities had aspects associated with these directions and colours.
Maya households interred their dead underneath the floors, with offerings appropriate to the social status of the family.
There the dead could act as protective ancestors. Maya lineages were patrilineal, so the worship of a prominent male ancestor would be emphasised, often with a household shrine.
As Maya society developed, and the elite became more powerful, Maya royalty developed their household shrines into the great pyramids that held the tombs of their ancestors.
Belief in supernatural forces pervaded Maya life and influenced every aspect of it, from the simplest day-to-day activities such as food preparation, to trade, politics, and elite activities.
Maya deities governed all aspects of the world, both visible and invisible. The priests performed public ceremonies that incorporated feasting, bloodletting, incense burning, music , ritual dance, and, on certain occasions, human sacrifice.
During the Classic period, the Maya ruler was the high priest, and the direct conduit between mortals and the gods.
It is highly likely that, among commoners, shamanism continued in parallel to state religion. By the Postclassic, religious emphasis had changed; there was an increase in worship of the images of deities, and more frequent recourse to human sacrifice.
Archaeologists painstakingly reconstruct these ritual practices and beliefs using several techniques. One important, though incomplete, resource is physical evidence, such as dedicatory caches and other ritual deposits, shrines, and burials with their associated funerary offerings.
Blood was viewed as a potent source of nourishment for the Maya deities, and the sacrifice of a living creature was a powerful blood offering.
By extension, the sacrifice of a human life was the ultimate offering of blood to the gods, and the most important Maya rituals culminated in human sacrifice.
Generally only high status prisoners of war were sacrificed, with lower status captives being used for labour. Important rituals such as the dedication of major building projects or the enthronement of a new ruler required a human offering.
The sacrifice of an enemy king was the most prized, and such a sacrifice involved decapitation of the captive ruler in a ritual reenactment of the decapitation of the Maya maize god by the death gods.
During the Postclassic period, the most common form of human sacrifice was heart extraction, influenced by the rites of the Aztecs in the Valley of Mexico;  this usually took place in the courtyard of a temple, or upon the summit of the pyramid.
The Maya world was populated by a great variety of deities, supernatural entities and sacred forces. The Maya had such a broad interpretation of the sacred that identifying distinct deities with specific functions is inaccurate.
The priestly interpretation of astronomical records and books was therefore crucial, since the priest would understand which deity required ritual propitiation, when the correct ceremonies should be performed, and what would be an appropriate offering.
Each deity had four manifestations, associated with the cardinal directions, each identified with a different colour.
Itzamna also had a night sun aspect, the Night Jaguar , representing the sun in its journey through the underworld. As well as their four main aspects, the Bakabs had dozens of other aspects that are not well understood.
In common with other Mesoamerican cultures, the Maya worshipped feathered serpent deities. The ancient Maya had diverse and sophisticated methods of food production.
It was believed that shifting cultivation swidden agriculture provided most of their food,  but it is now thought that permanent raised fields , terracing , intensive gardening, forest gardens, and managed fallows were also crucial to supporting the large populations of the Classic period in some areas.
The basic staples of the Maya diet were maize, beans, and squashes. These were supplemented with a wide variety of other plants either cultivated in gardens or gathered in the forest.
Cotton seeds were in the process of being ground, perhaps to produce cooking oil. In addition to basic foodstuffs, the Maya also cultivated prestige crops such as cotton, cacao and vanilla.
Cacao was especially prized by the elite, who consumed chocolate beverages. All of these were used as food animals; dogs were additionally used for hunting.
It is possible that deer were also penned and fattened. Other important, but difficult to reach, sites include Calakmul and El Mirador.
There are a great many museums across the world with Maya artefacts in their collections. The Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies lists over museums in its Maya Museum database,  and the European Association of Mayanists lists just under 50 museums in Europe alone.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mesoamerican former civilization. El Castillo , at Chichen Itza.
Detail of Lintel 26 from Yaxchilan. Main article: Mesoamerica. Main article: History of the Maya civilization.
Main article: Preclassic Maya. Kaminaljuyu , in the highlands, and El Mirador , in the lowlands, were both important cities in the Late Preclassic.
Main article: Classic Maya collapse. See also: League of Mayapan. Main article: Maya peoples. Main article: Maya society. See also: Women in Maya society.
Main article: Maya warfare. Jaina Island figurine representing a Classic period warrior. To print the story please do so via the link in the story toolbar.
This digital timeline will be able to show you the major events that happened during the time period reigns of the Aztec, Incan, and Mayan Empires.
The first of these was the Maya civilization. The Mayan civilization existed for more than years! Scholars, always seeking to put order in the past, have divided their time into 3 periods:.
It was during the Classic period that the Mayans flourished. Let's take a closer look at the civilization during this period and see what they achieved.
Much like in Ancient Greece, the Mayan civilization was a set of city-states. Over time different city-states emerged, controlling the area around the city but also, when the city-state was powerful, other cities.
The Maya built their great cities between A. Their accomplishments included the development of complex writing and mathematical systems and impressive advances in astronomy.
They used two calendars. One calendar was based on a solar year, while the other was a kind of sacred almanac.
A sophisticated three-symbol numerical system allowed the Maya to record numbers into the millions.
In the 16th century, the lives of the people in the Americas changed forever. Wars and destruction followed the steps of the Spanish, who gradually destroyed the ancient civilizations.
Nevertheless, by the time the Spanish arrived, the large Mayan cities were already empty and the once great civilization was no more.
Climate change and overpopulation are two possible explanations which made the people leave the large cities. In , the last Mayan city fell but this did not signal the end of the Mayans.
Indeed, today more than 6 million people still speak Mayan languages and follow the ways of their ancestors. The Maya were the only American civilization to develop an advanced written language.
They also excelled in mathematics, art, architecture, and astronomy. As mentioned earlier, the Mayan civilization was composed of city-states competing for power.
Over time, some rose above the rest and had power before another one took power. To the north-west of the Mayans, in present day central Mexico, it was no different.
The capital of the Aztec Empire was built on a swampy island in the middle of lake Texcoco.Lucero, Lisa Joyce Maya lineages were patrilineal, so the worship of Spiele N prominent male ancestor would be emphasised, often with a household shrine. From the Early Preclassic, Maya society was sharply divided between the elite and commoners. In this way, the lowest symbol would represent units, the next symbol up would represent multiples of twenty, Wester Union Online the symbol above that would represent multiples ofand so on. In the mountains of present day Peru, around AD, the Zusatzzahl rose Inka Maya established their capital Cusco. Here we also discuss the key differences with infographics and comparison table. On the image above you can see the sacred buildings with stepped pyramids just like those the Maya had. The House of the Bacabs, Copan, Honduras. Palaces and acropoleis were essentially elite residential compounds. Chiapas: los rumbos de otra historia [ Chiapas: The courses of a different history ] in Spanish.